Tonsils are removed much less frequently than in the past, but removal may be necessary under specific circumstances. “There are two predominant reasons for removing tonsils and/or adenoids in children,” says Dr. Ahuja, CHOC Children’s Specialists Division Chief of Otolaryngology. “The primary reason is obstruction, or difficulty breathing, sleep-disordered breathing or sleep apnea. The second reason is recurring infection. Tonsils may need to be removed if a child has seven tonsillar infections in one year, or five infections each year for two years, or three infections each year for three or more years, with the infections being accompanied by one or more of the following features: a fever of 1010F or above, a strep throat infection confirmed on a swab from the throat, white coating on the tonsils, large lymph nodes in the or mouth sores.” Surgical removal of the tonsils is called a tonsillectomy. Surgery should be considered only when necessary, but in appropriate situations, it can make a substantial difference in the quality of life.
A food allergy usually occurs in the first two years of life, says Dr. Ellis, a CHOC Allergy and Immunology Specialist. “It’s important to know that allergic reactions to food typically occur immediately or within two hours of eating the food,” Dr. Ellis explains. “The child might have skin issues like hives (itchy red spots) or develop itchy skin, or the child might throw up. All the organ systems can be involved. The child might wheeze or become short of breath. In severe cases, the cardiovascular system can be involved and the child could have a drop in blood pressure, feel light headed and faint.”
Cleft lip and cleft palate are craniofacial anomalies of the mouth and lip that occur early in utero when the sides of the lip and the roof of the mouth do not fuse together as they should. A child can have cleft lip or a cleft palate, or both.
An electronic health record (EHR) is a computerized collection of a patient’s health records. It includes information such as age, health history, medications, allergies, immunization status, lab test results, hospital discharge instructions and billing information. These digital records can be shared easily among a patient’s health care providers, so if one doctor orders a test, for example, all the patient’s doctors can see the results.
By Dr. Anjalee W. Galion, CHOC Children’s neurologist Losing an hour of sleep as we “spring forward” to daylight saving time can wreak havoc on sleep schedules this week, especially children who already struggle with sleeping problems. Due to their developing brains, children can be particularly sensitive to sleep deprivation. According to the National Pediatric
“Our immune system is a series of cells, tissues and organs that, throughout our lifetime, protects us from different invading pathogens and keeps us healthy and able to resist many repeated infections,” says Dr. Ashouri, a pediatric infectious disease specialist at CHOC. “When babies are infants, they get immune cells from mom through the placenta and breast milk, if they are breastfeeding. Over time, the baby’s system becomes mature and can fight off infections. A healthy lifestyle that includes getting enough rest, low stress and a balanced diet plus exercise helps to strengthen the immune system in people of all ages.”
An ear infection is an acute inflammation of the middle ear caused by fluid and bacteria behind the eardrum. “Usually it starts with a cold, so the child will have a runny nose and a cough. Colds can lead to ear infections in susceptible children,” says Dr. Nguyen Pham, an ear, nose and throat specialist at CHOC Children’s.
Children who don’t have heart problems as kids may develop them as adults, due to risk factors like obesity and hereditary factors, says Dr. Linda E. Muhonen, a pediatric cardiologist at CHOC Children’s. Risk factors that contribute to coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular diseases include smoking, poor diet that can lead to dyslipidemias, high blood pressure and a lack of exercise.