‘Pink eye’ is a common term for a viral infection of the conjunctiva of the eye- also called viral conjunctivitis. When a child gets pink eye, this means there is an inflammation of the membranes covering the inner eyelid and the whites of the eye. This can occur in one or both of the eyes. It may appear alone, or as part of a generalized upper respiratory infection involving fever, sore throat and nasal blockage.
It has also been called ‘swimming pool conjunctivitis’ because the infection is often spread in swimming pools. Chlorine in swimming pool water does not effectively kill viruses nor does it prevent the spread of this infection.
Besides being characterized by pink or even red eyes, there is often some drainage from the eye that may include a colored discharge, or clear tears. The infection is contagious so long as the eye is red and especially so long as discharge is coming from the eye. Your child may complain of sensitivity to light, eye discomfort and blurry vision. Pink eye may be uncomfortable, but very rarely will it threaten vision. If the child’s cornea becomes affected, the vision may be affected more significantly. If you suspect this, consult your child’s pediatrician.
Viral conjunctivitis usually resolves on its own within a few days. If you do consult your pediatrician, they may recommend supportive care, such as increased hygiene, removing the discharge as it appears, and frequent hand washing. They also may prescribe a topical antibiotic for the eye in order to prevent a super-infection by bacteria.
There are several other potential causes of pink or red eyes.
Bacterial infections of the eye are less common than viral infections, but the signs and symptoms are quite similar, including a red or pink coloring, sensitivity to light, and eye discomfort. The discharge associated with bacterial infections tends to be thicker and more colorful. Antibiotic drops are generally quite effective in resolving these infections.
Eyes that appear to have a pink tone do not necessarily mean that a virus is present. Dry eyes, environmental toxins, and eyes allergic to environmental irritants may appear pink, and may even have a clear discharge.
Allergies are also a very common cause of pink or even red eyes, with itching being a common characteristic. The whites of the eye may even appear swollen, and a clear or off-white discharge is common. Topical over-the-counter antihistamines are generally effective in moderate cases, but prescription topical steroid drops may be necessary to resolve the tougher cases.
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Suddenly, the 16-year-old has a group of heroes in her life: the coach who resuscitated her on school campus and the CHOC team that treated Katie for three weeks and will continue her care as she navigates life with a newly diagnosed heart condition.
During a recent athletic conditioning class in school, Katie collapsed and went into sudden cardiac arrest.
Her trained and quick-thinking conditioning coach snapped into action and resuscitated Katie with CPR until paramedics could arrive and transport her to CHOC.
“It was the longest 10 minutes of my life,” said Greg Vandermade, Katie’s coach at Mater Dei High School who also credits other students for alerting him to Katie’s condition and calling 911, as well as fellow staff who assisted by obtaining an automated external defibrillator (AED) to shock Katie’s heart into a normal rhythm.
At CHOC, Katie continued to have irregular heartbeats that required further defibrillation and cardioversion, procedures that help restore the heart’s natural heart rhythm, said Dr. Anthony McCanta, a CHOC cardiologist.
Katie also went on extracorporeal life support, a treatment that takes over the heart’s pumping function and the lungs’ oxygen exchange until a patient can recover from injury. This allowed the CHOC Children’s Heart Institute team to continue to treat her life-threatening arrhythmias with medication, Dr. McCanta said.
Dr. McCanta performed an electrophysiology study procedure and implanted beneath Katie’s skin a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator, a device that helps prevent sudden cardiac arrest in patients.
After Katie’s discharge and further testing, she was diagnosed with Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia, or ARVD. A rare type of cardiomyopathy where the muscle tissue in the heart’s right ventricle is infiltrated and replaced by fatty tissue and scar tissue, ARVD weakens the heart’s ability to pump blood and makes the heart susceptible to life-threatening arrhythmias.
The diagnosis also means Katie, a cross country and track athlete, will need to give up running for good.
“It was hard at first,” she said.
But instead of sitting on the sidelines, Katie’s decided to pick up golf, a sport that’s compatible with ARVD.
Katie has even begun incorporating a golf swing into her physical therapy sessions at CHOC, and she had two clubs in tow as she, her family and coach Greg visited the CVICU recently.
There, Dr. McCanta and the CHOC team presented Greg with a plaque recognizing him for his swift response and efforts that surely saved Katie’s life.
“Coach Greg responded to Katie with CPR on the spot and saved her life that day,” Dr. McCanta said. “His heroic actions, and those of Katie’s schoolmates and staff, including obtaining and appropriately using the AED, are the reason that Katie is alive today.”
Katie’s story underscores the importance of being trained in CPR and in the use of AEDs, Dr. McCanta said.
“Having AEDs in schools and training staff and students in CPR with an AED are some of the most important interventions that we have in saving lives of young people experiencing sudden cardiac arrest,” he said.
Coincidentally, Katie’s own grandmother, a nurse and health services coordinator in the Irvine Unified School District, has collaborated with LEAPS and helped get AEDs installed on her district’s campuses.
“Never did I think though that this would happen to one of my own family members,” said Marcia, Katie’s grandmother.
By Michael Shaaw, clinical pharmacist at CHOC Children’s
When most people think about what their pharmacists do at the pharmacy, the first thing that comes to mind might be counting pills. Yes, that is one responsibility of our job, but since pharmacists are one of the most accessible healthcare professional out in the community, here are five facts you might want to know about what we do so that you will be able to get the most out of your encounter with your pharmacist.
It takes a lot of schooling to become a pharmacist
In order to become a pharmacist, one typically would spend about six to eight years in school, including undergraduate course work and obtaining a doctoral degree in pharmacy. In the recent years, many pharmacy school graduates spend an extra one to two years undergoing residency or fellowship training in subspecialty areas such as critical care medicine, emergency medicine, pediatric, geriatric or oncology.
Pharmacists offer many other services beside dispensing your prescription
Aside from filling your prescriptions, a pharmacist can also administer immunizations such as flu vaccines, shingles, and travel vaccines. We can provide medication counseling and medication therapy management to help you better understand and be informed about the medicines that you’re taking in order to better manage your condition. You can also ask a pharmacist for recommendations on over-the-counter products, as well as smoking cessation and other chronic disease monitoring services such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
Pharmacists do a lot more than just counting pills
When a pharmacist receives a prescription, he or she will check for any allergy or drug interaction that could potentially do you harm. The pharmacist also makes sure that the dose of the prescribed medicine is appropriate for the stated indication, and raises any concerns to the prescribing physician and provide recommendations when appropriate.
There are pharmacists working in different settings other than retail stores or hospitals
Aside from working in retail or hospital settings, many pharmacists also work in areas such as academia, public health, government, pharmaceutical research, informatics, and managed care. They utilize their knowledge in pharmacology and medicine to further advance our healthcare system.
Pharmacists can save you money
Although pharmacists cannot change your copay set forth by the insurance company, most of the time they can recommend you other medication that’s similar to the one prescribed to you but at a lower cost (such as suggesting a suitable generic in place of a brand name medication). Pharmacists can also provide information about rebates and other cost-saving tips to help lower the cost of the medication
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CHOC Children’s wants its medical staff and patients to get to know its growing team of physicians, including primary and specialty care providers. Today, meet one of our pediatricians Dr. Reshmi Basu. Following medical school at University of California, San Diego, she completed her residency at CHOC. She’s been a member of the CHOC medical staff for eight years.
What are your clinical interests?
I am especially interested in asthma, sleep issues in children (infants through adolescents), and helping new mothers breastfeed.
Are you involved in any research?
I am a physician leader for the American Academy of Pediatrics, Chapter Quality Network U.S. Immunization Project. Practices here in Orange County and across the nation are participating in the project to improve vaccination rates for children two years and younger.
What are your most common diagnoses?
In our practice, we see a lot of patients with viral respiratory illnesses, ear infections, abdominal pain, asthma, allergies, eczema and headaches. We also spend much of our time on routine well checks for infants, teens and young adults. These appointments are important for keeping children current on vaccinations, and making sure they are growing and developing normally. We work hard to address parents’ concerns during these visits, as well.
What inspires you most about the care being delivered at CHOC?
I am proud to be a CHOC Children’s provider because CHOC undoubtedly provides the highest quality of care for patients and families. One of my patients was being treated for cancer during the holidays. Not only did CHOC make sure she received the most advanced medical care, the hospital’s child life team did everything they could to bring the holidays to her. Her room was filled with inspirational banners, Christmas lights and even beautiful new bedding on her hospital bed.
When did you decide to become a pediatrician?
I decided to become a pediatrician after my pediatrics rotation in medical school. I had always liked working with children, and was already drawn to pediatrics after volunteering at CHOC Children’s at Mission Hospital. (I grew up in Mission Viejo.) As a volunteer, I enjoyed spending time at the hospital, whether it was holding the babies or coloring with children. After my pediatrics rotation, though, I realized that children need advocates to fight for them, and that is something I wanted to do. My goal is to help all my patients grow and thrive to become healthy, successful adults.
If you weren’t a physician, what you be and why?
I pursued medicine and eventually pediatrics because of my interest in science and my love for children. If I wasn’t a pediatrician, then I think being a teacher would be another way for me to help children.
What are your hobbies and interests outside of medicine?
I enjoy spending time with my husband and children. I have a 5-year-old daughter and 3-year-old son who keep me very busy. We like being outdoors, whether it’s playing at the park or riding our bikes. We travel as often as we can. I also like to read, when I can find any free time.
What’s the funniest thing a patient said to you?
Several of my pre-school aged patients have told me I look like Doc McStuffins. This helps me to connect with them and put them more at ease during their visits. I dressed up as Doc McStuffins for Halloween a few years ago, and my younger patients were star struck!
When a child has a concussion, the rules for getting back to sports are laid out by state Return to Play laws. But when it comes to getting back to the classroom, the rules aren’t as clear.
A recent study in the journal Pediatrics found that only a few states have Return to Learn concussion laws, and these varied in terms of responsibility. Some of the laws were restricted to student athletes, excluding students who sustained non-sport related concussions.
“When returning a student to the classroom after a concussion, we try to balance stimulation levels and worsening of symptoms,” explains Dr. Chris Koutures, a board certified pediatrician and sports medicine specialist at CHOC Children’s. “While too much cognitive exertion can lead to headaches, problems concentrating, fatigue and trouble with emotional control, over restriction from classroom and academic activities can result in social isolation and anxiety about falling behind or lower grades that can also slow the recovery process.
“Returning to the classroom after a concussion optimally takes a team approach including the student, family, medical and education teams,” Dr. Koutures says. “Flexibility and creativity in paying attention to individual student needs and concerns can make this process more rewarding for all parties.”
Dr. Koutures advises the patient’s care team, including parents, to follow CHOC’s recommended six stages for returning a student to school after a concussion, including the following added guidelines:
Step-wise Return to Learn Progression
Step 1: No formal academic activity
Recent studies suggest that full or prolonged limitations in cognitive activity may actually delay recovery
In first few days after concussion, allow 15-20 minute intervals of single-task activities that do not provoke symptoms and are not excessively taxing
Listen to light music
Draw or color
Passive television or movies (at home), larger screen preferred, lower volume
Some texting, smartphone use; want to balance maintaining key social contacts with not having symptom-flare
Conversations with 1-2 other people
Separate the 15-20 minute bursts of activity by 30-40 minutes minimum of non-cognitive activity
If symptoms flare before 15-20 minute limit, stop activity and try again later
If patient can handle 2-3 periods of 15-20 minute activity over the course of day, can consider advancing toward partial return to school
Step 2: Light academic activity
Attend 1-2 periods or 1-2 hours of school
Select consecutive classes; have child help make decision
No physical education or other activity classes
Caution with more noisy classes such as woodshop, music/band, chorus
Tend to avoid first class in morning to allow more sleep and arrival at school without busy parking lot and hallways
Main goal: be in class; no responsibility for note-taking, participating in class /responding to teacher, in-class work, homework or testing
Audible learning (most kids handle this better than visual learning after a concussion)
Should have pre-printed notes for reference or have others take notes and share
Sit away from louder students, windows, projectors, or other light/noise stimulation
Sit close to teacher
Allow to wear earplugs and sunglasses as needed
May allow brief 1-2 minute periods of putting head on desk for rest
May leave class early to avoid the noise and commotion of hallways during passing periods
Step 3: Increased academic activity
Expand day to 3-4 periods or hours per day
Incorporate break periods (nutrition break, lunch)
Have quiet place to rest
Recommend against assemblies or rallies due to noise stimulation
Continue to avoid physical education or activity classes
Main goal is to be in class and handle longer day; still not responsible for note-taking, participating in class/responding to teacher, in-class work or homework
Step 4: Full-time attendance
Full-day attendance without activity or other higher-stimulation classes
May expect some increased fatigue at end of school day
If student wants to nap after school, limit to no more than one hour
May start to take own notes, though helpful to have pre-printed teacher’s notes or other student notes
Incorporate “to do” lists with short-block (10-15 minute) work periods followed by short (5 minute) breaks
Break period and breaks in class (especially if block schedule) may still be needed
If possible, move most challenging courses to time of day when student feels the best
Step 5: Return to Majority of Academic Activities
Once handling full day attendance, can resume taking notes in class, verbal responses to teacher, and in-class work
May begin homework starting with limits to 30-60 minutes a night and priority on essential concepts that are needed for eventual testing or continuity of learning
Waive any projects, papers, essays or other assignments that are not required for future learning needs
Try to limit burden of make-up work; focus should be on those assignments that are necessary for future learning
Sequential classes (math, foreign languages, science) tend to be the most challenging for make-up work
No tests or quizzes at this stage
Audible learning – listen/speak responses vs. writing, dictating work, audiobooks may be more favorable at this point
Step 6: Return to Full Academic Activity
Full-day attendance without symptoms, fulfilling all in-class duties and completing usual homework assignments
Can resume tests and quizzes
Strongly consider waiving missed tests or quizzes
Combine missed tests or quizzes to allow more quick completion of make-up work
Allow student to take missed tests/quizzes to gain exposure/mastery of material without being graded, or only receive grade if results are in usual level of achievement
Assign grades at end of grading period based on level of work prior to concussion
May need more time for test completion
May need individual room placement for testing
May limit testing/make-up testing to one test per day
May allow open book, use of notes, word banks or home-based testing
Consider alternate forms of testing such as spoken test, or multiple choice vs. longer essay responses that might be more taxing for the student
Students may still benefit from more audio learning
Can resume physical education (with physician release) and activity courses
Athletes and other adolescents with mild to severe concussions who experience symptoms such as dizziness, feeling unbalanced on their feet, blurred vision or trouble focusing on objects, may be good ...
CHOC Children’s multidisciplinary team of concussion experts can help prevent and treat concussions, as well as help patients ease back in to school and sports. Careful supervision is essential for ...
CHOC Children’s wants its patients and families to get to know its specialists. Today, meet Dr. Rahul Bhola, an internationally recognized expert in pediatric ophthalmology.
Dr. Bhola comes from a family of physicians. His parents practiced internal medicine for more than 40 years in India, and the empathetic and holistic care they provided to their patients inspired him to pursue a career in medicine.
“Very early on in medical school, I developed a special interest in pediatrics, and the surgical finesse of ophthalmology later cemented my passion for pediatric ophthalmology. A gift of vision is the most important sense a child can have,” Dr. Bhola says. “Giving a ray of light to those who struggle with vision is very gratifying to me. Treating children is important to me because they have their entire lives ahead of them and improving their vision positively impacts their entire family.”
Dr. Bhola attended medical school and completed an internship at University College of Medical Sciences in Delhi, India. He completed two residencies in ophthalmology at Maulana Azad Medical College in New Delhi, India and the University of Louisville, Kentucky. He pursued fellowships in pediatric ophthalmology at the University of California Los Angeles and University of Iowa.
“The biggest reason I was inspired to join CHOC was the mission of the hospital. I feel that CHOC’s mission to nurture, advance and protect the health and well-being of children is in close alignment with my personal goals as a physician,” Bhola says. “I seek to nurture the healthcare of children by delivering state-of-the-art ophthalmology care to our fabulous community. CHOC has the resources, reputation and experience to provide great care.”
At CHOC, Dr. Bhola will provide comprehensive eye care, treating patients with a variety of eye disease and disorders. In addition to treating refractive errors (the need for glasses), Dr. Bhola will provide more specialized care for diseases like amblyopia (lazy eyes), pediatric and adult strabismus (crossing or drifting of eyes), blocked tear duct, diplopia (double vision), pediatric cataracts, pediatric glaucoma, tearing eyes, retinopathy of prematurity, ptosis (droopy eyelids), traumatic eye injuries and uveitis.
The Need for Regular Eye Screenings
Dr. Bhola is passionate about providing education on the need for regular eye screenings. For example, kids complaining of headaches may be taken to a neurologist. However, eye problems like refractive errors (the need for glasses), convergence insufficiency and strabismus can result in headache from excessive straining of the eyes, which may affect school performance and even social withdrawal in some children. These conditions are likely to be identified at regular vision screenings.
Unique Approach To Treating Pediatric Glaucoma
Dr. Bhola is among the very few surgeons nationally skilled in treating pediatric glaucoma surgically using the illuminated microcatheter. This highly-specialized, minimally-invasive approach of canaloplasty has been used for treating pediatric glaucoma only within the last five years. The onset of juvenile glaucoma often occurs between the ages of 10 and 20. It can be secondary to genetics, or traumatic.
“Even though childhood glaucoma is an uncommon disorder, it often goes undetected and can eventually result in blindness, underscoring the importance of regular eye screenings,” says Dr. Bhola.
As a Level II pediatric trauma center, and the only one in Orange County dedicated exclusively for kids, CHOC’s trauma team treats a variety of critically injured from across the region. This includes children who have sustained sports injuries, during which damage to the structure of the eye can cause glaucoma.
Dr. Bhola’s philosophy of care is to treat his patients as if they were his own children.
“My main philosophy is to provide patient-centered care, delivered with compassion and excellence. I remember their life events, and celebrate their achievements with them. It’s important that a patient remembers and trusts you completely with their care. I love when my patients send me holiday cards and copies of their school photos and let me know how they are doing. They became part of my family. I always treat every patient of mine like they are my own child,” Dr. Bhola says.
He also focuses on treating the whole person rather than the disease, and involving patients in their care.
“I don’t treat the disease, I treat the individual. Healing is more than treating the disease. I want to be at their level so I always talk to them directly and not only talk to their parents. I involve their entire group during treatment,” he says.
At CHOC, Dr. Bhola is eager to provide holistic eye care for his patients.
“My practice will offer complete comprehensive vision care to all patients, which includes both medical as well as surgical care. Our patients come to us for glasses, contacts, regular vision screenings, and we also provide more specialized care like glaucoma, cataract and strabismus surgeries,” Bhola says. “Systemic disorders such as diabetes, sickle cell anemia, juvenile rheumatic disease and lupus, have coexisting eye issues that may go undetected if children aren’t seen for regular eye screenings. CHOC patients with systemic disorders such as diabetes now have better access to holistic care.”
As division chief for CHOC Children’s Specialists ophthalmology, Dr. Bhola is passionate about providing state-of-the-art care to patients and training the next generation of pediatric ophthalmologists.
“My main goal is to build a state-of-the-art ophthalmology division, not only delivering excellent patient care but also engaging in vital research and disseminating education to the next generation of ophthalmologists and referring providers,” Bhola says.
When not treating patients, Dr. Bhola enjoys cooking, practicing yoga and meditation and spending time with his wife and two daughters.
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CHOC Children’s wants its patients and families to get to know its specialists. Today, meet Dr. Katherine Williamson, a CHOC pediatrician.
Q: What is your education and training? A: I studied international relations at Pomona College, then went on to the University of California, San Francisco to study medicine. I completed my pediatric residency training at CHOC Children’s.
Q: What are your administrative appointments? A: I am the chair for pediatrics at Mission Hospital where my practice rounds on newborn babies. I am a partner within my practice at Southern Orange County Pediatric Associates (SOCPA), which is part of the CHOC Children’s Primary Care Network. Within this network, I am the SOCPA lead for the IT team where we are beta testing a new electronic health record system to be used at CHOC Children’s and in the CHOC Primary Care Network.
Q: What advocacy work are you involved in?
A: I am the vice president for the Orange County chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics, (AAP-OC) where we focus on child advocacy and serve as an academic and resource base for pediatricians and pediatric sub-specialists. Through our legislative advocacy efforts in the last few years, we have helped to pass SB 277 to keep kids vaccinated in California, and raise the smoking age for cigarettes and vaping from 18 to 21 years of age. On a community level, we have created a mental health committee bringing together pediatricians and mental health providers working to address the mental health needs of our Orange County youth. And we have newly created the School Health Committee where we are working to increase communication and collaboration between pediatricians and schools, with goals that include the creation of an electronic HIPAA-protected communication system between teachers and pediatricians, and to better understand how to address the unmet needs of children with learning disabilities.
Q: What are your special clinical interests?
A: Child nutrition and exercise, and healthy body image
Q: How long have you been on staff at CHOC?
A: I did my pediatric residency at CHOC from 2008 to 2011, then stayed on staff as a transport physician which is still currently one of my roles. I joined my pediatric practice, Southern Orange County Pediatric Associates (SOCPA) in 2012, which has partnered with CHOC in the past year to form the CHOC Primary Care Network, thus keeping me in the CHOC family on many levels.
Q: What are some new programs or developments within your specialty?
A: Southern Orange County Pediatric Associates (SOCPA), along with two other pediatric private practice groups in Orange County – Seaview Pediatrics and Pediatric & Adult Medicine – have partnered in the last year with CHOC Children’s to form the CHOC Children’s Primary Care Network. I am very excited to be a part of this partnership because through our collaboration we can share the best evidence-based medicine practices and increase communication between CHOC inpatient services, sub-specialists, and children’s primary care practices, thus improving patient care. In the near future we will have a shared electronic health record system that unlike so many EHRs in the country will be geared toward pediatrics because we are designing it ourselves.
Q: What are your most common diagnoses? A: Pharyngitis, bronchospasm, fever, otitis media, common cold, pneumonia, acne, jaundice
Q: What would you most like community/referring providers to know about you or your division at CHOC? A: Kids come first! And all kids needs a medical home.
Q: What inspires you most about the care being delivered here at CHOC? A: I have been a part of the CHOC family for many years, from residency through now, and I am inspired by CHOC’s multi-disciplinary team approach to take care of our kids. I have seen CHOC grow with the new tower, expansion of the specialty departments, and most recently CHOC’s extension to the community with the CHOC Children’s Primary Care Network to reach out to kids in their medical home. It’s all about the kids!
Q: Why did you decide to become a doctor? A: I believe every person has a right to quality health care, and I have been fascinated by the human body since I was a kid. Like I tell my patients, it’s the coolest machine you will ever own. I love being a part of keeping kids healthy, and I love teaching parents and kids about their own bodies so that they can take ownership in their health and well-being too.
Q: If you weren’t a physician, what would you be and why?
A: One of two things, or maybe both – a journalist, and/or a Broadway performer. I loved to sing and act on stage much of my childhood, and I believe telling a story, whether fictional or non-fictional, is the best way to relate and reach out to others.
Q: What are your hobbies/interests outside of work?
A: Anything outdoors – running, swimming, biking, and scuba diving. And traveling abroad whenever I can.
Q: What have you learned from your patients, or what is the funniest thing a patient has ever told you?
A: I learn every day from my patients to find joy in the little things in life – from seeing how your finger lights up red when you touch the otoscope light to the wonders that bribery with stickers can do. I am laughing every day!
Getting kids out the door on time is stressful, and even more so if you’re headed to the pediatrician’s office for a well or sick visit. To make the process easier, and help parents maximize their time, consider the following guidelines of what to bring with you:
Insurance card + identification
List of medications the child is taking
Paperwork or test results if your child has been seen anywhere else since your last visit, such as urgent care or the emergency department
School paperwork if your appointment is tied to a physical for school activities
Diapers, formula and other baby supplies such as a blanket and pacifier
A favorite stuffed animal that can be “examined” by the doctor if your child is nervous about the visit
A favorite book, game or tablet to keep your child occupied if there is a wait
List of questions you and your family may have
Parents are encouraged to try and make childcare arrangements for other children, especially during flu season. To avoid delaying potential testing, parents are not encouraged to give their child a snack or drink while waiting to be seen.
By Michelle Roberts, registered nurse and certified lactation consultant at CHOC Children’s
Every year in August, we celebrate World Breastfeeding Week. This year’s focus is “Sustaining Breastfeeding Together.” As a lactation consultant, the most common question I get from parents of a breastfed infant is, “How do I know my baby is getting enough?” When we bottle feed an infant we can look at the measurements on the bottle to determine the exact amount that a baby gets. When a mom is breastfeeding, she may be concerned because she can’t see the amount taken. A common reason women give up on breastfeeding is feeling they are not producing enough milk.
Here are 5 key indicators a baby is getting enough milk directly from the breast.
Breastfeeding 8-10 times minimum per day. Newborn babies should be breastfed a minimum of 10 times per 24 hours. As the baby gets older and is gaining appropriate weight, they may cut back to 8 times per 24 hours. We recommend keeping a breastfeeding log. Start by downloading a template breastfeeding log.
Latches well and maintains latch. Babies should latch and remain latched without coming on and off throughout the feeding. It can be difficult to transfer adequate milk if they are not staying on the breast. For the most part, breastfeeding should not be painful. If you are experiencing bleeding or scabbing, the latch is not deep enough and can lead to low weight gain and low milk supply.
Audible swallowing. A baby’s suck pattern and frequency of swallowing will change throughout the first three to five days. When a baby is first born, they will be sucking more often than swallowing but as mom’s milk supply increases, the swallowing should increase too. Mom’s milk usually increases between Day Three and Day Five after giving birth.
It is important to track a baby’s diapers to make sure they are producing enough diapers based on their age. Your birth hospital or your pediatrician will provide you with a diaper log that will show you how many wet and dirty diapers are expected based on your baby’s age.
Weight Gain. All newborn babies lose some weight shortly after birth. Your pediatrician will determine if they lose too much weight. Once mom’s milk supply has increased in volume, the baby should gain an average of 1 oz. per day.
What do you do if you are not sure your baby is getting enough at the breast?
Your pediatrician is always a great person to help you determine whether your baby is doing well. It is also helpful to reach out to women in your life that have breastfed. Call your mom, your sister, a neighbor or a friend for support. It is also beneficial to be aware of your resources within your community. Most birth hospitals have lactation consultants that can work with you on an outpatient basis. A lactation consultant will be able to determine the amount of milk a baby transferred from your breast to your baby’s stomach by using a breastfeeding scale. They can also assist with supplementing at the breast directly.
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Nursemaid’s elbow is one of the most common injuries in small children, and it can happen during the most innocent activities, like swinging a child by the arms or playing tug-of-war.
“There is a natural looseness in the ligaments of little kids’ elbows,” according to CHOC Children’s pediatric orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Jessica McMichael. “Nursemaid’s elbow happens when the arm gets tugged or pulled, which can partially dislocate the radial head portion of the elbow.”
The injury can happen when a baby or small child is lifted by the hands, or when a child tugs their arm while holding someone’s hand. It can also happen when an object is pulled from their hand, when a baby rolls over or because of a fall.
What are Symptoms of Nursemaid’s Elbow?
Parents can look for these characteristic signs of nursemaid’s elbow in their child:
The child stops using their arm normally or treats their arm gingerly
The elbow appears straight and the child doesn’t want to bend it
The child holds their arm limply and away from the body, “like a paralyzed arm”
The palm is rotated inward, rather than facing out toward the front of the body
The child complains of pain in the elbow, forearm or wrist
Someone holding the child’s hand may feel a pop in the child’s wrist when the injury happens
Nursemaid’s elbow is a very common orthopaedic condition treated at CHOC, according to Dr. McMichael. It is likely to happen multiple times after a child has it once.
“Nursemaid’s elbow is not threatening to the limb, but it does need to be treated,” Dr. McMichael says. “It’s okay to wait until the next morning if your child is acting okay. If your child is not acting like themselves, get it checked out.”
How to Fix Nursemaid’s Elbow
To fix nursemaid’s elbow, a medical professional will gently and quickly pop the elbow back in place. A child might feel pain for a brief moment during the procedure but should start using their arm normally within a few minutes.
If a child’s elbow pops out of place three or more times in a month, a cast may be put on to immobilize the arm and promote stiffness.
Nursemaid’s elbow can be treated by a pediatrician, a pediatric orthopaedic specialist or at a pediatric emergency department. Parents should not correct the elbow themselves unless instructed by a doctor.
Dr. McMichael encourages parents to educate people who are around their child, like grandparents, daycare staff and preschool teachers, about the safest ways to lift a child, hold their hands and play with them.
Nursemaid’s elbow is less likely to occur after age four, when the elbow ligament starts to tighten up and improves with age and growth.
To make an appointment with a CHOC orthopaedic specialist, call 888-770-2462.
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