What to Expect from an Autism Assessment

By Rachel Fenning, PhD, assistant clinical professor at The Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The experience of having a child evaluated for a developmental concern may feel overwhelming, but the assessment process can provide clarity and guidance. If your child does receive a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the assessment represents a vital first step in securing important treatments for your child.

A diagnosis of ASD is based on direct assessment of the child and clinical information gathered from key individuals in the child’s life. A physician or clinical psychologist typically performs the initial diagnostic evaluation, which may include:

• A complete history, including a detailed interview about your child’s current and past experiences and behaviors.

You will be asked to recall specifics about your child’s history. Many families find it useful to reference their child’s baby book or other notes. For instance, creating a timeline of events, including developmental milestones, behavioral changes, and the emergence of any concerns may be helpful. It is also important to be prepared to talk about family medical history, too.

• Careful observation and interaction with your child during the appointment.

Many professionals use specific tools to evaluate symptoms of ASD. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2 (ADOS-2) is among the most widely used and most respected instruments. However, results from any diagnostic tool should  always be used in combination with other information to inform clinical decisions.

Many experts further recommend a multi-disciplinary assessment approach in order to better understand a child’s functioning and to guide recommendations. This may include several visits with different specialists. You should feel comfortable inquiring about the need for any or all the following:

• A thorough medical assessment, including a general physical and neurological exam, hearing and vision testing, and laboratory testing.

• A psychological assessment, including measures of cognitive functioning, social-emotional skills and adaptive behavior, and possibly academic skills.

• A speech and language assessment, including tests of language comprehension, expression, and everyday language use.

• An occupational or physical therapy assessment, including measures of motor functioning and sensory processing.

Depending on the assessment results, your provider may suggest a range of possible interventions, such as intensive behavior intervention (applied behavior analysis), counseling, speech and language therapy, educational interventions, occupational and physical therapy, and related supports. You will have an opportunity to ask questions, and it may help to have a few in mind ahead of time. It is also important to establish ways to follow up with your provider about any future concerns.

Finally, know that by engaging in the assessment process, you are taking an important step toward gaining understanding and support for you and your child.

Learn more about CHOC’s partner, The Center for Autism & Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

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