6 Ways to Keep Your Kids Safe from the Flu

Flu season is here. We spoke to Dr. Katherine Williamson, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician, about how to keep your kids safe from the flu.

Dr. Katherine Williamson
Dr. Katherine Williamson, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician

#1 Get the flu shot

Make sure that each member of your family gets the flu shot every year. The Centers for Disease Control recommends annual influenza vaccinations for everyone age 6 months and older. Vaccinations are especially important for those at increased risk for flu complications, including pregnant women. Encourage family members and caregivers around your child to get the flu shot. Of the more than 170 pediatric deaths from the flu during the 2017-2018 influenza season, 80 percent of those did not receive a flu shot.

#2 Practice proper hand washing

Remind your child that we always wash our hands for at least 15 seconds (always with soap, and always with vigorous rubbing) after using the restroom, before and after eating, after playing outside, and after sneezing, coughing or touching your face. Aside from getting the flu shot every year, proper hand washing is the best way to prevent the spread of illnesses including the flu.

#3 Stay away from people who have a fever

Ask friends, family, or caregivers who have had a fever or chills within the past 24 hours to stay away from your child. Do not send your child to school or daycare for at least 24 hours after they experience a fever or chills.

#4 Teach proper cough etiquette

Teach your child to cover his nose and mouth when he coughs. Parents should model good behavior.

#5 The importance of sleep

Sleep! The best immune system boost you can give your child is good sleep at any age. The right amount of sleep for your child is however much sleep he/she needs when he/she can wake up naturally without an alarm clock or mommy clock waking them up. For some kids this is 8 hours, while other need more than 10.

#6 Healthy eating

Healthy vegetables, fruit, and protein. You are what you eat! Eating processed sugar-filled foods can decrease your immunity by inhibiting your body to fight against diseases. Offer your kids healthy foods without the option of choosing the less healthy snack. They will eat when they are hungry, and when they are hungry, make sure it is healthy options that are available.

Find a CHOC pediatrician near you

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Should I Take My Child to the Pediatrician, Urgent Care or Emergency Department?

By Dr. Sarah Kay Herrera, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician

At CHOC Children’s, we know that parents want to be confident they’re giving their child the best care. In order to do that, you need to know where to bring them when they’re sick, but the problem is there are so many options: Do I bring them to the pediatrician’s office? Urgent care? Emergency department? This can make you feel overwhelmed and confused – especially with cold and flu season just around the corner.

We believe parents should have peace of mind they are getting their child the best care. We know it can be scary, stressful and sad to have a sick child. That’s why our Primary Care Network has 16 convenient locations throughout Orange County and beyond. CHOC Children’s Hospital in Orange offers the only emergency department in Orange County that’s just for kids. At the Mission Hospital Emergency Department, in partnership with CHOC Children’s at Mission Hospital, kids and families have access to pediatric-trained nurses, physicians and specialists.

To help you make decisions about where to go for care, consult this guide:

1. Pediatrician

Your pediatrician’s office is not only a place for check-ups, but your primary resource for sick visits as well. Your child’s pediatrician is the doctor who already knows your child’s medical history.

  • You will need to set an appointment for a sick visit, which could include symptoms like fever, runny nose, cough, ear pain, headaches, sore throat, rashes or abdominal pain.
  • If your child is experiencing a chronic lingering issue such as abdominal pain or headaches, it is best to see your pediatrician as they can provide ongoing care and find a pattern in the symptoms, which is important for more complex illnesses.

Here’s a helpful guide of what to bring to the pediatrician’s office.

2. Urgent care

  • Urgent care offices are usually open after business hours, which is typically after 5 p.m. and weekends.
  • Most are walk-in clinics and do not take appointments. This means you can usually expect long wait times. This is the best place to go for acute illness such as fevers, ear pain, runny nose, cough, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, minor falls, and stitches.
  • Sometimes your pediatrician or an urgent care provider may decide your child is too ill to go home and they may send you to the emergency department for further treatment or testing.

Emergency department

  • In some cases, it’s best to go straight to the emergency department for apparent life-threatening events, which could include rapid and fast breathing, head trauma, trauma with loss of consciousness or vomiting, motor vehicle accidents, severe abdominal pain or dehydration.
  • An infant less than 28 days old with a fever of 100.4 degrees or higher is considered an emergency and should be taken directly to the ED.
  • Here’s a helpful checklist of what to bring to the emergency department.
  • Not all urgent care clinics and emergency rooms take care of children on a regular basis. It is best to go somewhere that specializes in children’s health. Pediatric-focused facilities have specialized training and equipment to offer the best care for your child.
  • Most pediatrician offices have a phone triage line to help parents decide which place may be best for their child.
Looking for a pediatrician? Find one near you.

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Should My Kids Get the Flu Shot This Year?

Many parents have expressed concern over the last few months that this year’s influenza vaccine may be less effective than in years past and wondering, “Should my kids get the flu shot this year?” These concerns stem from data released after Australia’s flu season, where recent reports indicated low effectiveness of the vaccine.

“We’re using the same vaccine here in the United States, so people think it won’t be effective,” says Dr. Jasjit Singh, a pediatric infectious disease specialist and medical director of infection prevention and control at CHOC Children’s.

dr-jasjit-singh-choc-childrens
Dr. Jasjit Singh, a pediatric infectious disease specialist and medical director of infection prevention and control at CHOC Children’s., addresses parents’ annual concerns over, “Should my kids get the flu shot this year?”

These doubts are misguided, says Singh. Although reports show Australia’s vaccine was only 10 percent effective, that data was specifically looking at the H3N2 strain that had dominated the southern hemisphere this year, she says. Effectiveness against the same strain in the US has been as high as 30-40 percent, and even higher against other strains of influenza in the past.

“We can’t take that one statistic and apply it to all strains of the flu in the US this season,” Singh says.

It’s important for parents to remember that the although the vaccine helps prevent children and adults from getting the flu, physicians are especially concerned with preventing influenza-related hospitalizations or even death.

“People forget that children and adults can die from influenza. So far in the U.S. there have been nine pediatric flu-related deaths this season,” Singh says.

Since the 2004-2005 flu season, flu-related deaths in children have ranged from 37 to 171 each season, according to the Centers for Disease Control.

A recent study published by the American Academy of Pediatrics examined vaccine effectiveness in 291 pediatric influenza-associated pediatric deaths from 2010-2014. Vaccine effectiveness was 51 percent in children with high-risk conditions, compared to 65 percent in children without high-risk conditions.

“This shows that many of our deaths are in otherwise healthy children,” Singh says.

Although it’s best to get vaccinated early in the season, it’s better to be vaccinated later in the winter than not at all.

“Very often, people get vaccinated because someone they know has the flu. It takes two weeks for the vaccine to take effect, so if your child has been exposed to the flu in that time period, they can still get sick,” she says.

Parents should remember that children cannot get from the flu from getting a flu shot.

“The vaccine is not a live vaccine, so it’s impossible to get the flu from getting a flu shot,” Singh says. “the vaccine prevents influenza virus, but during winter months there are many other viruses that cause colds and respiratory viruses, that are usually milder than the flu.”

Those who decline a flu shot because they “never get the flu” still need to be vaccinated, she adds.

“It’s important to remember that some people may have minimal symptoms, but can still pass the virus to others who may be vulnerable to more severe disease.”

The single best way to protect your child from the flu is by getting them vaccinated each year. In addition to receiving an annual influenza vaccine, there are other things parents and caregivers can do to help prevent the flu. Use proper hand-washing techniques, use respiratory etiquette, and stay home from work or school if you are sick with the flu, to prevent spreading it to others.

Download your immunization guide

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How to Prepare Your Family for Flu Season

Flu season is here, and there are several things you can do to help prepare your family for flu season.  Here, Dr. Daniel Mackey, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician, answers some of parents’ most common questions about how to prepare your family for flu season.

Dr. Daniel Mackey
Dr. Daniel Mackey, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician

Is the nasal flu vaccine available this year?

An advisory committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently recommended that the nasal spray influenza vaccine not be used this upcoming flu season.

When should my child get a flu shot?

Vaccines are already available for the 2017-2018 influenza season. Children up to eight years of age who have not received a flu vaccine in the past may need two doses, four weeks apart.

Who needs a flu vaccine?

The CDC recommends the flu vaccine for all people age 6 months and older. Certain people are at higher risk of complications from the flu, so it’s especially important that these people (and people who live with them) get vaccinated. They include:

  • pregnant women
  • kids younger than age 5
  • people age 65 and older
  • people of any age who have long-term health conditions

Can my child get the flu from the flu vaccine?

No. You cannot get the flu from getting the flu vaccine. The vaccine prevents influenza, however it does not prevent against other strains of viruses.

What sort of flu season is expected this year?

Physicians can’t predict what the flu season will be like. Every influenza season, the severity and length varies, which is why it’s important to get vaccinated every year.

Besides ensuring their children get a flu vaccine, what else can parents do to help prevent the flu?

In addition to ensuring their child is vaccinated against the flu every year, there are many things parents and other caregivers can do to help prevent the flu. Use proper hand-washing techniques, use respiratory etiquette, and stay home from work or school if you are sick with the flu, to prevent spreading it to others.

Looking for a pediatrician? Find one near you.

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When to See the Pediatrician This Season

As soon as the school year begins, pediatricians start seeing more infectious diseases because these illnesses are more communicable in a classroom setting. Poor weather enhances that communicability, so these ailments become even more prevalent during winter months. It can often be difficult for parents to decide which infections can be treated at home and which require a trip to the pediatrician.

We spoke with Dr. Michael Cater, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician, about what ailments parents should keep a close watch for this season, and how to tell when it’s time to make an appointment with their child’s doctor.

when to see pediatrician
Dr. Michael Cater, a CHOC Children’s pediatrician, offers advice on when to see the pediatrician this season.

Influenza season tends to pick up in late December or early January, Dr. Cater says, but its prevalence in the community depends on how many people get immunized. The Centers for Disease Control recommends that everyone over the age of 6 months receive an influenza vaccine. However, for this season, the nasal flu vaccine is not available.

Sometimes it is difficult for parents to decide which illnesses can be treated at home and which ones require a trip to the pediatrician. Dr. Cater offers tips on when it’s time to make an appointment:

  • Many infectious diseases in children are associated with a fever. If a fever of 100.4 degrees or higher lasts longer than three days, then a visit to the pediatrician is needed for future evaluation.
  • Labored breathing that doesn’t respond to home remedies. This could be an indication of a more serious respiratory infection.
  • If a child is vomiting and does not respond to dietary restriction.
  • Cases of diarrhea when the child doesn’t respond to dietary restrictions.
  • Sore throat associated with a fever and tenderness in the neck. This could indicate Strep throat, requiring antibiotics for the most effective treatment.
  • Ear pain in conjunction with an upper respiratory infection such as a cold, especially if the ear pain begins four or five days after the onset of the cold. This is highly suggestive of an ear infection, requiring antibiotics for the most effective treatment.

To avoid common infections this season, remember to get your family vaccinated against influenza, and practice proper hand washing technique. Children should wash their hands:

  • Before eating
  • After going to the bathroom
  • After blowing their nose
  • After playtime

Use hand sanitizer when you’re on the go and think your child may have touched something contaminated with germs, but use actual soap and water when you see dirt. Spend at least fifteen seconds vigorously washing hands front and back, and between the fingers.

Download this guide to personal hygiene to help prevent the spread of germs this season.

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