6 headache hygiene tips for children

Headaches usually are brief and can be caused by many things, including too little sleep, stress, or a concussion. Some headaches last longer and come with other symptoms. Very rarely, headaches can be a sign of something serious. Learn more about different types of headaches in children, and what parents can do to help.

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Dr. Mary Zupanc, a pediatric neurologist and co-medical director of the CHOC Children’s Neuroscience Institute

Dr. Mary L. Zupanc, a pediatric neurologist and co-medical director of the CHOC Children’s Neuroscience Institute, offers tips for parents on headache hygiene— or healthy habits to reduce the likelihood, frequency and severity of headaches.

  1. Maintain regular sleep habits

If your child goes to sleep and wakes up at approximately the same time every day, Dr. Zupanc says, their likelihood of suffering from a headache decreases. Bedtime and wake-up times should not vary significantly from weekday to weekend. Adolescents have sleep phase delay, meaning their brains do not want to go to sleep until later at night and they want to sleep in. This is normal behavior, but school schedules rarely accommodate this adolescent neurobiology.

  1. Exercise regularly

Children should get at least 30-40minutes of physical activity three to four days per week, she adds. However, the full 30-40 minutes doesn’t need to be all at once. You can break it down into smaller sessions.

  1. Eat a well-balanced diet. Avoid meal skipping.

A child’s eating habits can have a direct effect on their susceptibility to headaches, Dr. Zupanc says. To encourage kids to eat healthy, including them in the food preparation process whenever possible—from meal planning to grocery shopping to prepping fruits and vegetables in the kitchen. Kids are more likely to eat what’s in front of them if they feel like they had a choice and hand in preparing it.

Some foods may trigger headaches in children. Limit the intake of processed or fried foods. Overly restrictive diets may prompt an unhealthy relationship with food or body image. If you are unsure if certain foods may be triggering your child’s headaches, consult your pediatrician.

  1. Stay well hydrated.

Headaches are commonly caused by dehydration. There is a link between increased water intake, decreased headache severity, and improved quality of life. At CHOC Children’s, we recommend that children drink the number of 8-ounce cups of water equal to their age, with a maximum of 64 ounces for children over age 8. This means your 1-year-old would drink one 8-ounce glass or water, your 5-year-old would drink five 8-oz glasses of water, etc.

  1. Limit caffeine intake

Caffeine tolerance differs from person to person, but the general recommendation is 200 to 300 milligrams per day. A standard cup of coffee has around 100 milligrams of caffeine, compared to a large coffee drink that can have over 400 milligrams of caffeine. If you have too much caffeine, you can experience headaches, heart palpitations, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, or irritability.

  1. Play

Yes, really! Kids are busier than ever these days, and an over-scheduled child is likely to suffer stress, which can lead to headaches, Dr. Zupanc says. Spending time outdoors, reading for pleasure, and playing sports for fun rather than in a competitive environment are all good ways to help cut down on stress, she says. In addition, screen time — including tablets and smartphones —should be limited. Learn more about screen time limits for kids.

Mindfulness, or relaxation techniques, can help kids and teens build the coping skills they need to address issues like stress and anxiety, Zupanc adds. Learn more about mindfulness tips for your children.

Studies have shown that cognitive behavioral therapy, in combination with preventive medication, has helped adolescents with chronic migraine headaches.

  1. Keep a journal

If your child experiences frequent headaches, keep a journal to track their headaches so you can identify a pattern, and show this to your child’s pediatrician. In your headache journal, keep track of:

  • Headache start date and time
  • What happened just before the headache?
  • How much did your head hurt, on a 0-10 pain scale?
  • Where did your head hurt?
  • Was the pain throbbing (pounding) or dull?
  • Were there any other signs or symptoms associated with the headache, such as a change in vision, tingling of an arm or leg, or weakness?
  • What did you feel just before and during the headache?
  • What did you do to make yourself feel better?
  • Did you feel better, on a 0-10 pain scale?
  • Headache end date and time

Your child’s doctor may adjust their diet, headache hygiene routine, or their over-the-counter pain relief regimen, Dr. Zupanc advises.

There are some, albeit rare, situations where a child’s headache warrants a trip to the emergency department, Dr. Zupanc says, including:

  • A thunderclap headache: severe, sudden onset of pain that occurs anywhere in the head and grabs your attention like a clap of thunder. Pain usually peaks within 60 seconds to a few minutes.
  • Any headache that comes with weakness or numbness on one side of the body, changes in consciousness or awareness, or change in balance.
  • Blurred, double or loss of vision that persists after the headache resolves.

Sporadic headaches rarely require brain neuroimaging, such as a CT scan or MRI scan of the brain.

Frequent headaches that are increasingly severe can suggest an underlying brain problem. Brain imaging may be necessary. If your child experiences the following symptoms, ask your pediatrician for a referral to a pediatric neurologist for further evaluation and possible imaging:

  • Headaches associated with weakness or numbness in an arm or leg, or balance problem. In this case, immediate follow-up care is warranted.
  • Headaches that wake a child out of sleep
  • Headaches associated with projectile vomiting
  • Headaches that increase with Valsalva maneuver (such as bearing down for a bowel movement)
  • Headaches associated with a seizure
VIDEO: Dr. Zupanc explains headaches

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My daughter’s journey from seizures to surgery

By Celeste P., mom of CHOC Children’s patient Camila

When my daughter Camila was going through epilepsy surgery, I read stories about other kids’ success, and gleaned hope from them. As much as I learned from her doctors and nurses, it was helpful to read a parent’s perspective. I now share our journey in the hopes that it will be a source of comfort to other parents.

A mother’s instinct

During my pregnancy, an ultrasound showed that my baby had heart abnormalities. Camila underwent an MRI after she was born, and the imaging confirmed she had tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) — a disorder that causes growths in multiple organs including the brain, heart, kidney and lungs.

The growths in her brain associated with TSC often cause seizures. In the days after Camila was born, I noticed the right side of her body seemed to twitch, and my instincts told me she was having seizures. I mentioned it to her nurse, but she dismissed my worries.

We were sent home as if everything were normal, but my gut told me something was wrong. That’s when I called CHOC Children’s. Ahead of our appointment with a CHOC neurologist, I kept a journal to track Camila’s episodes, including what her body did and how often it happened.

The journey begins

We met Dr. Lily Tran, a pediatric neurologist with special training in epilepsy, when my daughter was a few months old. Over the next few years, we tried several different treatment options including the ketogenic diet, steroid treatment and countless medications.

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Camila undergoing monitoring

Most treatments would follow the same pattern — the seizures would stop for a couple months, but then they’d come back stronger than they were before. Any progress Camila made during those seizure-free months would disappear, and she’d regress even further.

My husband and I just wanted to do everything possible for our daughter to have the best outcome.

Before surgery

Over the next few years, our lives revolved around trying to find a treatment that would stabilize her seizures. As open and willing as we were to try new treatment, this disease was relentless. Just before Camila’s fourth birthday, her condition finally regressed to the worst point it had ever been.

She stopped eating, was having 15 to 20 seizures per day, and was constantly throwing up. We had to pull her out of school. We couldn’t leave the house because she could no longer hold her head up, and I was scared to put her in her car seat. I had to take a leave of absence  from my job because my daughter’s health was deteriorating so badly.

We weren’t living anymore; we were in survival mode.

I had been pushing for surgery for a couple years but had wanted to try every other treatment option before we got to that point. When Camila stopped eating, smiling and going to the restroom, I was done trying treatment.

Dr. Tran confirmed through a series of tests that Camila was a candidate for surgery.

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Dr. Lily Tran, a pediatric neurologist and epileptologist at CHOC Children’s

Guides on our journey

Before we met Dr. Joffre Olaya, a pediatric neurosurgeon at CHOC, Dr. Tran said, “I’ve worked with a lot of neurosurgeons in my career, and Dr. Olaya is amazing. I wouldn’t put your daughter in his hands if I didn’t trust him.”

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Dr. Joffre Olaya, pediatric neurosurgeon at CHOC Children’s

We knew surgery was the right decision, and that we had a good team in place, but as a mom I was still worried.

Camila’s care team at CHOC walked us through the whole process from surgery to recovery. Since most of Camila’s seizures originated from the left side of her brain, the plan was to disconnect the right and left sides of her brain and remove a portion of her left temporal lobe. This essentially “quieted down” the left side of her brain.

Camila’s care team answered all our questions. Although their job was to care for my daughter, they did a good job caring for us as parents, too.

Any lingering worries I had subsided when I happened to meet the mom of another Dr. Olaya patient at a grocery store in the weeks before surgery. What started as a stranger complimenting my daughter’s blanket turned into sharing stories and experiences and ended with total peace of mind.

I needed another parent to tell me it was going to be OK. She told me not to be scared and reminded me that we were in good hands with Dr. Olaya. That woman also put me in touch with another mom whose child had undergone the same surgery Camila was scheduled for. Being able to connect with a parent who understood exactly what I was going for meant the world to me.

Recovering from epilepsy surgery

Camila’s surgery lasted more than six hours.

While she recovered in the hospital, Dr. Olaya visited her every single day to check on her. He had a wonderful bedside manner.

Deciding to put our daughter through brain surgery was the biggest decision my husband and I had ever made, and I don’t know if we would’ve been as comfortable with that decision without Dr. Tran and Dr. Olaya.

Camila spent a month at CHOC recovering from surgery, and then she moved to a rehabilitation facility. Extensive rehabilitation is needed to help the brain continue healing after surgery. While she was there, she developed hydrocephalus— fluid buildup within the brain. This prompted a trip back to CHOC for a surgery to drain the fluid, and a one-month hospital stay to recover from surgery.  We went back to CHOC for another surgery to drain that fluid and month-long recovery.

Life after epilepsy surgery

These days, Camila is doing amazing. Before surgery, I would have to look at old photos of my daughter to remember what her smile looked like. The first time I saw her smile after surgery, it made everything worth it.

Camila_birthday
Camila celebrating her 5th birthday

Although her seizures returned a few months after surgery, they were less frequent and less severe than before surgery. We didn’t want to put her through another surgery, but fortunately we’ve been able to keep seizures at bay through other treatments.

As the parent of a child with special needs, we had learned over the years to find our version of normal. We had gotten used to Camila’s feeding tube – a necessity because she was unable to eat by mouth due to her developmental delay caused by TSC, and her frequent seizures. We had normalized frequent trips to the doctor and kept a bag in the car for emergency hospital visits. That was all normal for us.

We never pictured being able to do things that typical families do all the time: going to the grocery store or the mall, being away from home for more than two hours, traveling, or sleeping well at night knowing your child is safe. Now, those are all realities for us.

Besides regular checkups, we haven’t had to go back to the hospital since we were discharged from surgery recovery.

Pre-surgery, Camila wasn’t able to go swimming because of her frequent seizures. Now, she loves going to the pool and playing with other kids.

We had never let ourselves dream of traveling with my daughter, but we recently took family trips to Disney World and Mexico.

Camila_swimming
Camila swimming on vacation

Camila is back in school, and recently won awards for being the most involved and most improved.

All we want is for my daughter to be happy; everything else is just the cherry on top.

My advice to other moms

To another parent reading this whose child has epilepsy, know that you are not alone.

Know that it’s OK not to have all the answers. You will want to be strong for your kids, but this is a scary time. It’s OK to feel scared and sad. It’s OK to have bad days. Allow yourself the space and time to feel upset or sad about your situation.

I’m eternally grateful for the epilepsy mom I met in the grocery store, and the parent she introduced me to as well. In addition to those sources of support, my daughter’s care team helped me get involved with a support group for epilepsy parents. We help one another navigate the medication and treatment process from a parent perspective – something that at times can feel overwhelming. I would encourage any parent who has a child with epilepsy to seek out a similar group.

You and I may be strangers, but we’re really not — we’re family.

Learn more about the CHOC Epilepsy Program

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Dealing with a new epilepsy diagnosis: Frequently asked questions

When you’re a parent, you want the best for your child in every way.  We know an unexpected epilepsy diagnosis can be scary. At CHOC, we deal with the unexpected every day, and have helped many families navigate life after a new epilepsy diagnosis. Here, we share a list of some of the frequently asked questions our epileptologists receive from their patients’ families.

Question: How much notice do I need to give for getting my child’s prescription refilled?

Answer: Please allow for 5-7 days to complete the request, especially for special order medications or controlled substances. Medication refill request should be faxed by your pharmacy to (855) 246-2329.

Question: How much notice do I need to give for forms to be completed?

Answer: Please bring any school, IHSS (In Home Supportive Services) or state forms to the clinic visit for completion. On average, it takes two weeks to get your forms completed and returned to you.

Question: Are there things my child can’t do now?

Answer: When your child’s seizures are under good control, regular physical activity is good for them. However, your child should avoid sports that involve climbing to a high location or contact sports that may result in a head injury.

Question: Will my child be able to swim in the summer?

Answer: Your child may swim once their seizures are under control, but he or she will always need to have 1:1 adult supervision in the water. Your child should never engage in any type of water sports without adult supervision. The supervising adult should be able to swim and have the strength to carry your child out of the water if the need arises. If there is a lifeguard on duty, inform the lifeguard that your child has epilepsy.

Question: Can my child play video games?

Answer: For most children with epilepsy, playing a video game is not a problem. However, some children have seizures that are triggered by light. These are called photosensitive seizures. These seizures may be triggered by flashing lights, such as when playing a video game, watching certain television shows or simply driving past trees on a sunny day.  Ask your doctor if your child has photosensitive seizures.

Question: Can my child ride a bicycle, skateboard, or roller blade?

Answer: Once your child’s seizures are under control, they may participate in these activities. Your child should always wear a helmet when riding a bike or scooter, when rollerblading, roller skating, or skate boarding.

Question: Can my child drive?

Answer: If your child is of driving age, your doctor will sign the necessary paperwork for the DMV if:

  1. Your child has been seizure free for at least 6 months
  2. Consistently taking their medications.

*Frequent lab monitoring may be needed to maintain that your child is safe to drive

Question: What if I am unable to pay for medications, appointments, or testing?

Answer: We have a licensed social worker available to work specifically with the epilepsy team to assist with patient and family needs.

Question: Where do I go for help and support?

Answer: There are advocacy and support groups you can contact that offer help and assistance to families dealing with an epilepsy diagnosis. Please ask your child’s care team for a list of these organizations.

Question: Can my child take over-the-counter medications?

Answer:  Always speak with your primary care doctor before giving your child any over-the-counter medications. Some over-the-counter medications can lower your child’s seizure threshold (which means a seizure may occur). However, this does not happen with everyone, and there is no way to predict whether a seizure will occur.

Learn more about the CHOC Epilepsy Program

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  • My daughter’s journey from seizures to surgery
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  • Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: What parents should know
    By Dr. Lily Tran, pediatric neurologist and epileptologist and medical director of CHOC’s comprehensive epilepsy center Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurs when someone with epilepsy suddenly dies unexpectedly and ...
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Beating brain cancer and giving back: Brodie’s story

Brodie’s cancer survivor party was a chance to celebrate the completion of his cancer treatment by gathering his family and friends for an epic Nerf battle. Wanting to give back to other CHOC Children’s patients, the twelve-year-old boy turned his celebration into a fundraiser. Brodie used the proceeds to buy Legos, journals, games—all his favorite things while in treatment—to brighten the days of other children battling cancer.

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Brodie and his brother shopping for gifts to donate to CHOC patients.

“He wanted to buy more of the things that helped break up his time while he was at CHOC,” says mom Megan. “If you ask Brodie what he wants to be when he grows up, he says ‘I just want to make people happy.’”

Brodie’s journey to a diagnosis

Brodie’s path from initial symptoms to a diagnosis was long. While practicing karate at home, his dad Marcus noticed that his left side didn’t have any “oomph.” Over the next few days, he and Megan realized Brodie was losing coordination in his left hand and left foot.

The first few doctors who saw Brodie ruled out a tumor but couldn’t identify what was causing his loss of coordination. An MRI revealed something on Brodie’s basal ganglia—a collection of nerve cells deep within the brain that help control movement. They were eventually told that Brodie had likely suffered a stroke. Later, another specialist thought it might be iron accumulation on the brain.

“Something looked wrong, but nobody could tell us exactly what it was,” said Marcus.

The family spent 18 months crisscrossing the country, seeking out various pediatric specialists on their quest for answers.

During this time, Brodie had another issue—every five months or so, he would go blind in his left eye for a few days. There was no discernible reason for this loss of vision.

Their quest eventually led them to Dr. Raymond Wang, a pediatric metabolic disorder specialist at CHOC Children’s. He was able to rule out a genetic reason for Brodie’s symptoms, and encouraged the family to seek out the care of the CHOC neurology team. The next time Brodie lost vision in his eye, the family headed for the Julia and George Argyros Emergency Department at CHOC Children’s Hospital. Brodie underwent another MRI, but this time from a different angle due to his eye condition.

They found a tumor.

Another starting line

“The news that Brodie had a brain tumor was not the finish line of the 18-month journey we had been on,” Marcus says. “That was actually the beginning of yet another journey, this one at CHOC.”  

The family was introduced to Dr. Ashley Plant, a pediatric oncologist at CHOC Children’s.

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Dr. Ashley Plant, a pediatric oncologist at CHOC Children’s

“Not only was she professional and a top-quality doctor, but she was also very warm and empathetic in that first meeting,” Marcus says. “She even gave my wife a hug, which made a lasting positive impression.”

Dr. Plant explained that Brodie needed to undergo a biopsy to determine whether the tumor was cancerous or not. Dr. Joffrey Olaya, a pediatric neurosurgeon at CHOC, performed the biopsy.

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Dr. Joffre Olaya, pediatric neurosurgeon at CHOC Children’s

“I was scared to death when he went in for the biopsy. But I knew we were in very good hands with Dr. Plant and Dr. Olaya,” Marcus says.

The biopsy confirmed the mass in Brodie’s brain was a cancerous tumor known as a germinoma. Germ cells are the reproductive cells in an unborn baby. Germ cells that grow in an unusual way can become a tumor. Often, those tumors form in the ovaries or testes. Sometimes during an embryo’s development, these cells can migrate to the brain and result in intracranial (within the skull) germ cell tumors.

A doctor unlike the rest

Throughout their lengthy journey to find a diagnosis, Megan and Marcus had met many different specialists. They consider Dr. Plant a guide on their son’s treatment journey.

“We were, and continue to be, super impressed with Dr. Plant because not all doctors are like her, and we’ve seen a lot of doctors,” Marcus says. “That doesn’t mean they’re not good, but they don’t all have the same bedside manner as she does.”

Throughout the course of Brodie’s treatment, Megan and Marcus had a lot of decisions to make. In those difficult moments, Dr. Plant was right beside them.

“She provided us with all the information we needed to make responsible decisions, but didn’t make decisions for us,” Marcus recalls. “She helped us make the ultimate decisions as his parents.”

Brodie’s treatment plan included six months of chemotherapy at CHOC, followed by seven weeks of proton radiation in San Diego.

Post-treatment, Brodie has returned to CHOC every few months for an MRI of his brain and a check-up with Dr. Olaya.

“We were so grateful to have Dr. Olaya in our corner because he’s always on the ball. He’s very sharp and conscientious, but also very caring,” Megan says. “It might tell you something that when Dr. Olaya comes in the room, Brodie jumps up and gives him a bear hug.”

Finding a familiar face at CHOC

While Brodie was admitted to CHOC Children’s Hospital for chemotherapy, he was visited by a child life specialist from The Cherese Mari Laulhere Child Life Department, a group who strives to normalize the hospital environment for children and their families.

Child life specialists can engage patients in medical play to help them understand procedures and make tests less scary, bring their favorite toys and movies to their rooms, and show them amenities around the hospital like Turtle Talk and Seacrest Studios.

Shayli, the first child life specialist to visit Brodie’s room, turned out to be an old family friend.

“She looked familiar, but as soon as she said her name, a lightbulb went off—we knew her!” Marcus said. “Megan and I have been friends with Shayli’s parents for years, and they’re great people. But we hadn’t seen Shayli since she was a baby—and now here she is, taking care of our son.”

Shayli knew that Brodie loved Star Wars, so whenever characters would make special visits to the hospital, she made sure they didn’t leave before making a special stop in Brodie’s room.

Although Brodie spent a lot of time in his room resting during chemotherapy treatments, he made many visits to the child life playroom as well.

“For a while, it felt like we lived at CHOC, and it was great to have the ability to take Brodie to the play room for air hockey, or watch a movie or play a video game,” Marcus recalls. “There’s nothing you wouldn’t do to take your child’s mind off chemotherapy treatment.”

Brodie today

Despite countless doctor’s appointments and treatments over the last few years, Brodie has no fear of hospitals.

“He’s never met a stranger. Everyone he meets becomes an instant friend,” Megan says. “Brodie gets so excited to see Dr. Plant and the rest of his team. If I tell him that he has an MRI coming up, he’ll say, ‘Sweet!’”

With cancer behind him, Brodie is feeling more like himself. He loves Lego sets, playing X-box with his younger brother Finn, and swimming.

Learn more about the Hyundai Cancer Institute at CHOC Children's

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6 do’s and don’ts of concussion

If your child experiences a concussion, it can be scary to think about the effects on their developing brain. The good news is, more than 85% of concussions heal well if managed properly early on.

“Early, appropriate treatment prevents kids from having to come see me as a neurologist,” says Dr. Sharief Taraman, pediatric neurologist and director of the CHOC Children’s Concussion Program. “It’s important to do as much as we can to prevent kids from getting a concussion, prevent reinjury, and treat them as aggressively and appropriately as possible in the early intervention stages.”

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Dr. Sharief Taraman, a pediatric neurologist at CHOC Children’s.

Follow these do’s and don’ts for proper prevention and treatment of concussion. If your child does sustain a concussion, be sure to see your pediatrician as soon as possible.

  1. Do protect a young brain

Athletes should be taught safe playing techniques, equipment maintenance and to follow the rules of the game. Always wear a helmet while playing contact sports like football, hockey and lacrosse, and during activities like horse riding, biking, skateboarding or snowboarding. Helmets should fit correctly and be in good condition.

  1. Don’t miss the signs

A concussion isn’t always obvious. Watch for these signs in your child or teen, especially while they are participating in sports. Symptoms may take up to a day to appear after an incident.

  • Headache
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Balance problems
  • Dizziness
  • Visual problems
  • Fatigue or drowsiness
  • Sensitivity to light or noise
  • Numbness or tingling
  • Dazed or stunned
  • Irritability
  • Sadness
  • More emotional
  • Nervousness
  • Trouble falling asleep
  • Feeling mentally “foggy”
  • Feeling slowed down
  • Confused about recent events
  • Sleeping less or more than usual
  • Difficulty concentrating or remembering
  • Forgetful of recent information or conversations
  • Answers questions slowly or repeats questions

Seek emergency care immediately if your child or teen has experienced unconsciousness for any amount of time or has changes in alertness, convulsions or seizures, muscle weakness, persistent confusion, repeated vomiting, unequal pupils, unusual eye movements or walking problems.

  1. Do sit on the sidelines

The most important thing your child should do if they are injured during a sports activity is to immediately stop playing. It’s crucial that they avoid more hits, jolts, shakes or bumps to the head or spine. Getting back in the game is not worth the risk. Remember, the signs of concussion aren’t always clear, so when in doubt, sit it out.

Athletes may not want to tell their coach if they had a concussion. Encourage them to come forward if they have an injury, or if they notice a teammate is injured. Young athletes should never ignore a head injury or impact to the head.

  1. Don’t skip treatment

Even a mild concussion should be evaluated by a doctor. Get in to see your child’s pediatrician as soon as possible.

When a concussion is severe or symptoms won’t go away, talk to your doctor about a referral to the CHOC Children’s Concussion Program, which includes pediatric sports medicine specialists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuropsychologists and rehabilitation therapists who are all trained in concussion management.

  1. Don’t rush recovery

Rest is important immediately following a concussion. For 24-48 hours, your child should stay home from school and get plenty of quiet time and mental rest. This includes limiting activities like:

  • Television
  • Texting
  • Social media
  • Reading
  • Driving
  • Doing homework
  • Social interaction
  • Attending loud events

After the first 24-48 hours, light activities may help speed up recovery. Most children should be able to tolerate some school after a few days. If they need to miss more school than that, contact the school and your doctor to help intervene with short-term adjustments. Before returning to sports, be sure that symptoms have resolved and get medical clearance from your child’s doctor.

  1. Do prevent future injury

Parents, coaches and athletes should be extra cautious to prevent future concussions. One concussion is rough enough, but additional injury is even worse. Research has shown that repeated jars to the head can have long-lasting effects on the brain. And, if a child or teen suffers a second concussion before the first concussion heals, they are at risk for Second Impact Syndrome, a life-threatening condition.

“The CDC has called concussions an epidemic in the United States,” Dr. Taraman says. “Kids really do get into trouble if a concussion is not recognized, and if we don’t take the proper steps to get them better and avoid those second injuries, which can be catastrophic.”

Download 5 questions to ask an injured athlete

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